Manufacturing Terms


Cable Assembly — Cable assembly is a collection of wires or cables banded into a single unit with connectors on at least one end.

Contract Assembly — Contract Assembly is an service provided by a company on wide range of assemblies like mechanical assembly, electronic assembly, hose assembly, PCB assembly & etc.

Electronic Assembly — Electronic assembly includes the assembly and testing services for multi- component electronics of all types.

Hose Assembly — Hose assembly is the process of putting together hose, hose connectors, hose ends and hose nozzles into complete assemblies.

Mechanical Assembly — Mechanical assembly services are used to assemble mechanical parts or components. Mechanical assembly is the assembly of goods for industry.

Order Fulfillment — Order fulfillment is the most general sense the complete process from point of sales inquiry to delivery of a product to the customer.

Packaging Services — Packaging services provide expertise in packaging to prevent damage, loss or theft. Packaging services generally provide packaging materials are part of the service offering.

PCB Assembly — A PCB (Printed Circuit Board) populated with electronic components is known as PCB Assembly (Printed Circuit Board Assembly)

Wire Harness — Wire harness assembly is the assembly of wires and connectors into harnesses. Wire harness assemblies organize wires for quick connections.

Centrifugal Casting — Centrifugal Casting is a casting technique that is typically used to cast thin-walled cylinders.

Ceramic Casting — Ceramic Casting is a type of casting by which slurry of ceramic is poured over the pattern. It hardens rapidly to the consistency of rubber.

Die Casting — Die casting is the process of forcing molten metal under high pressure into mold cavities. This process is used for producing engineered metal parts.

Investment Casting — Investment casting is an industrial process which is generally used for production of high quality metal castings made from aluminum, steel and exotic alloys.

Permanent Mold — Permanent Mold Casting is metal casting process that employs reusable molds, usually made from metal. This process is suitable for making higher volume parts than sand casting.

Precision Casting — Precision casting is a process whereby molten metal is poured into a mold shaped like the desired finished product.

Sand Casting — Sand Casting or a sand molded casting is a cast part produced by forming a mold from a sand mixture and then pouring molten liquid metal into the cavity in the mold.

Shell Casting — Shell Casting is an expendable mold casting process that uses a resin covered sand to form the mold. It is also known as shell molding or shell-mold casting.

Connectors — Connectors or an electrical connectors is a conductive device for joining electrical circuits together.

Control Panels — Control panels are used to receive inputs, trigger outputs and monitor systems and instrumentation. They are highly used in a variety of industrial, manufacturing and process control applications.

Electromechanical — Electromechanical is related to a mechanical device or system that is actuated or controlled by electricity especially being a transducer for converting electrical energy to mechanical energy.

PCB Assembly — A PCB (Printed Circuit Board) populated with electronic components is known as PCB Assembly (Printed Circuit Board Assembly)

PCB Production — PCB Production is a process manufactured by applying a layer of copper over the entire surface of the circuit board substrate either on one side or both sides & it is a very difficult and complex process.

Photoplotting — Photoplotting is a process which is used primarily in the electronics industry for the production of printed circuit boards. This process is done with the help of a machine that produces a latent image on a media, usually high-contrast monochromatic photographic film, using a light source under computer control.

Soldering — Soldering is an process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint.

Testing & Repair — Testing services generally apply more rigorous standards than inspection services, putting parts or components through a variety of performance and environmental tests. Repair services include a wide-range of services to keep machinery running and production processes online.

Transformers — Transformers is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors. It is used to convert voltage, current and signals from one form or level to another.

Winding — A completed coil assembly with taps etc is called a winding. Primary winding and Secondary winding are done in transformers to transfer energy from one electrical circuit to another by magnetic coupling without moving parts.

Wiring — Wiring or Electrical wiring refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity and associated devices.

Brake Bending — Brake Bending or bending brake is an metalworking machine that allows the bending of sheet metal.

Deep Drawing — Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch.

Enclosures — Enclosures are protective housings for electronics, equipment batteries or other applications. They are designed to protect personnel from accidental injury and to prevent the ingress of environmental contaminants.

Extrusions — Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. This process can be done with the material hot or cold.

General Sheet Metal — General Sheet Metal is simply metal formed into thin and flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes.

Hydroforming — Hydroforming is a cost-effective way of shaping malleable metals into lightweight, structurally stiff and strong pieces. It is highly used in automotive industry.

Metal Cutting — Metal Cutting is a manufacturing process used to separate materials. Laser Metal Cutting is often used in industrial manufacturing areas for cutting sheet metal and piping.

Metal Spinning — Metal Spinning is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part.

Precision CNC Sheet Metal — Precision CNC Sheet Metal is an metal formed into thin and flat pieces which are used in the applications of building car bodies, airplane wings, medical tables and etc.

Presswork — Presswork or industrial presses use a ram to shear, punch, form or assemble metals or other materials by cutting, shaping or using dies attached to slides.

Punching — Punching is a metalworking process of using a punch press to push a punch through the material and into a die to create a hole in the workpiece.

Roll Forming — Roll Forming is a continuous bending operation in which a long strip of metal is passed through consecutive sets of rolls, or stands, each performing only an incremental part of the bend, until the desired cross-section profile is obtained.

Shearing — Shearing is a metalworking process which cuts stock without the formation of chips or the use of burning or melting. It is also known as die cutting.

Sheet Metal Gaskets — Sheet Metal Gasket is a mechanical seal that fills the space between two mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.

Springs & Wire Forms — Springs are mechanical devices, commonly made from tensioned steel, used to exert pressure or tension, resist tension, or retract after tension is applied.

Stamping — Stamping is the manufacturing process whereby a metal stamping die or a set of metal stamping dies is used to form sheet metal blanks into a three dimensional shape.

Tube/Wire Bending — Tube or Wire Bending is a metalworking process used to permanently form stock tubing in to the shape of a die.

Welding — Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence.

Wire Forming — Wire Forming process is performed with a variety of techniques depending on the wire diameter. It is used into fabricating shapes such as clips, springs, specialty pins, rings, wire racks, hooks and etc.

Cold Forging — Cold Forging is a cold working process where the material is squeezed into a die and the finished parts assume the shape of the die.

Die Forging — Hot Die Forging is a process in which a metal piece, section or roller is heated to a suitable temperature and deformed plastically between a die and a header in which the print of the desired part has been hollowed out.

Drop Forging — Drop forging is a process used to shape metal into complex shapes by dropping heated metal into a punch and die which compresses to gradually change the shape of the metal.

Duplex Forging — Duplex Forging or Duplex treatment are applied to impove wear resistance of hot forging tools.

Hand Forging — Hand Forging is a metalworking process of plastic deformation of a metal by manual force.

Hot Forging — Hot Forging dies are exposed to severe mechanical and thermal cyclic loading. This causes hot wear, cracks and plastic deformation in the die. Hot forming machines form metal that has been preheated

Precision Forging — Precision forging refers to close-to-final form or close-tolerance forging. It is not a special technology, but a refinement of existing techniques to a point where the forged part can be used with little or no subsequent machining.

Upset Forging — Upset Forging is an forging process where a workpiece’s diameter is increased by compressing its length.

Annealing — Annealing is a heat treating process that alters the microstructure of a material causing changes in properties such as strength and hardness and ductility.

Hardening — Hardening is a metallurgical and metalworking process used to increase the hardness of a metal. The hardness of a metal is directly proportional to the uniaxial yield stress at the location of the imposed strain.

Nitriding — Nitriding is a heat treating process that alloys nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case hardened surface.

Stress Relieving — Stress relieving is a process of heating metal parts to very high temperatures and then allowing the part to cool.

Tempering — Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals, alloys and glass. Tempering is done to toughen the metal by transforming brittle martensite or bainite into a combination of ferrite and cementite.

Vacuum Treatment — Vacuum treatment is a commonly used steelmaking process, used for removing dissolved gases from the steel. This process is also known as vacuum degassing.

Boring, Horizontal — Horizontal Boring is a steerable trenchless method of installing underground pipes, conduits and cables in a shallow arc along a prescribed bore path by using a surface launched drilling rig, with minimal impact on the surrounding area.

Boring, Jig — Jig boring is used to accurately enlarge existing holes and make their diameters highly accurate. It is used for holes that need to have diameter and total runout controlled to a high degree.

Broaching and Splining — Broaching is a machining process that typically used to enlarge a circular hole into a larger noncircular shape such as a square or other desired shape. Splining is the act of broaching internal and/or external ridges onto a part.

CNC Machining — CNC machining are use fast, repeatable and programmable machines which can function while unattended in order to manufacture parts quickly and efficiently.

Drilling — Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials.

EDM, Ram — Ram EDM is an Electrical Discharge Machining method or application in which a graphite electrode is machined with traditional tools. The electrode is connected to the power source, attached to a ram and slowly fed into the workpiece.

EDM, Wire — Wire EDM is an Electrical Discharge Machining method or application in which a very thin wire serves as the electrode. Special brass wires are typically used, the wire is slowly fed through the material and the electrical discharges actually cut the workpiece.

Electrochemical — Electrochemical Cells are batteries that translate chemical energy into electricity. They can be found in various shapes and sizes for different applications.

Engraving — Engraving is the practice of incising a design on to a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it.

Gear Cutting — Gear cutting is the process of creating a gear. The most common processes include in gear cutting are hobbing, broaching and machining.

Grinding — Grinding is a finishing process in which a thin layer of material is removed from flat and cylindrical surfaces by means of an abrasive material which rubs against the metal part.

Grinding, Centerless — Centerless Grinding is a method of material removal through grinding, similar to centered grinding except for the absence of the spindle.

Grinding, Cylindrical — Cylindrical Grinding is used in the removing the cylindrical surfaces and shoulders of the workpiece. Cylindrical grinding is also called center-type grinding.

Grinding, Flat — Flat Grinding commonly called Surface grinding is used to produce a smooth finish on flat surfaces. It is used for removing extremely small amounts of material from a flat surface of a part.

Grinding, Internal — Internal Grinding is used to grind the internal diameter of the workpiece. Tapered holes can be ground with the use of internal grinders that can swivel on the horizontal.

Grinding, Jig — Jig Grinding is a process of grinding complex shapes and holes where the highest degrees of accuracy and finish are required.

Honing — Honing is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path.

Machining, Large — Large Machining services are those who provide the capability to output large production runs using a variety of machining services.

Machining, Multi-axis — Multi-axis machining is a manufacturing process, where computer numerically controlled tools that move in 4 or more ways are used to manufacture parts out of metal or other materials by milling away excess material, by water jet cutting or by laser cutting.

Machining, Precision — Precision Machining is a process used to produce prismatic components. It is capable of tighter tolerances and better surface finish than other machining processes.

Machining, Screw — Screw Machining refers to the high volume production of very small, high precision cylindrical parts.

Machining, Screws — Machining screws are general purpose, slotted or hexagonal-headed screws with a standardized thread used to fasten parts together.

Machining, Swiss Screw — Swiss Machining also called as Screw machining refers to the high volume production of very small, high precision cylindrical parts. Screw/Swiss style machines are similar to CNC lathes.

Machining, Turning — Turning is an basic machining processes. It produces solids of revolution which can be tightly toleranced because of the specialized nature of the operation.

Milling — Milling is a process of cutting and shaping materials into products with milling machines.It is used to produce prismatic components.

Saw Cutting — Saw Cutting is an manufacturing process used to separate materials that uses a hard blade or wire with an abrasive edge to cut through softer materials.

Slotting — Slotting Machines have a mounted cutting tool with a movable table so that metal or wood can be moved back and forth for shaping, slotting, or cutting.

Tapping — Tapping machines are used to drill or thread holes in a surface. Tapping machines are made with a variety of specifications and function in several ways.

Thread Cutting — Thread cutting is used when full thread depth is required, the quantity is small, the blank is not very accurate, threading up to a shoulder is required, threading a tapered thread, or the material is brittle.

Thread Grinding — Thread Grinding is a process usually used to produce accurate threads or threads in hard materials. It is done done on a grinding machine using specially dressed grinding wheels matching the shape of the threads.

Thread Rolling — Thread rolling is a process for forming screw threads, with the former referring to creating internal threads and the latter external threads.

Vertical Boring — Vertical Boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled, by means of a single-point cutting tool.

Anodizing — Anodizing is a process for finishing aluminum alloys that employs electrolytic oxidation of the aluminum surface to produce a protective oxide coating.

Anodizing, Color — Color Anodization is generally done with organic acids, but the same effect has been produced in laboratory with very dilute sulfuric acid.

Galvanizing, Dip — Dip Galvanizing is a form of galvanization. It is the process of coating iron, steel or aluminum with a thin zinc layer, by passing the metal through a molten bath of zinc.

Galvanizing, Spray — Galvanizing Spray is a fast drying coating that protects steel and ferrous metals exposed to severe corrosive environments.

Painting/Coating — Painting is the process of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface. Coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.

Plating, Decorative Chrome — Chrome plating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object. The chromed layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, ease cleaning procedures, or increase surface hardness.

Plating, Electro — Electro Plating is a plating process that uses electrical current to reduce cations of a desired material from a solution and coat a conductive object with a thin layer of the material.

Plating, Electroless — Electroless plating is a non-galvanic type of plating method that involves several simultaneous reactions in an aqueous solution, which occur without the use of external electrical power.

Plating, Hard Chrome — Hard Chrome plating is a finishing treatment utilizing the electrolytic deposition of chromium. Hard Chromes are thicker deposits and are used in industrial equipment to reduce friction and wear.

Plating, PM — Powder Metal (PM) Plating components are sealed in preparation for plating and to reduce internal corrosion.

Plating, Zinc — Zinc Plating or Zinc coatings prevent oxidation of the protected metal by forming a barrier and by acting as a sacrificial anode if this barrier is damaged.

Polishing — Polishing is an finishing processes for smoothing a workpiece’s surface using an abrasive and a work wheel or in other words it is an process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action.

Powder Coat — Powder coating is a type of coating that is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. Two common types of powder coating systems are electrostatic and fluid bed powder coating.

RFI Shielding — RFI shielding includes coatings, gaskets, enclosures, sealants, resins and other products or materials that block out electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) .

Silk Screening — Silk Screening or Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate.

Blow Mold — Blow molding or blow forming, is a manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. It is a process used to produce hollow objects from thermoplastic.

Injection Mold — Injection molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials.

Molding, Compression — Compression molding is a method of molding in which the molding material, generally preheated, is first placed in an open, heated mold cavity.

Molding, Dip — Dip Molding is a plastic manufacturing process in which heated metal molds are immersed or dipped in a tank of liquid plastisol.

Molding, Foam — Form Molding is a foam manufacturing process that creates soft foam products direct from compound into a final product.

Molding, Gas-Assist — Gas Assist Injection Molding is a low-pressure process utilizing nitrogen gas to apply uniform pressure throughout the molded plastic part.

Molding, Injection — Molding Injection or Injection mold is a manufacturing process for producing parts from both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials.

Molding, Insert — Insert molding is a process in which plastic is injected into a mold that contains an pre-placed insert. The result of insert molding is a single molded plastic piece with an insert surrounded by the plastic.

Molding, RIM — RIM (Reaction injection molding) molding is similar to injection molding except thermosetting polymers are used, which requires a curing reaction to occur within the mold.

Molding, Rotational — Rotational molding also known as rotomolding, is a molding process for creating many kinds of mostly hollow items, typically of plastic.

Rotational Mold — Rotational molding is a versatile process for creating a variety hollow plastic parts. This process uses heat and biaxial rotation, rotation on two axes, to produce hollow, one piece parts.

Stack Mold — Stack Mold are the two mold parting surfaces or mold split lines. A stack mold does not require much more clamp force than a single phase mold because the projected part surface areas of the cavities on both sides of the center block cancel out each others force.

Thermoform Mold — Thermoform Mold also known as Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold and trimmed to create a usable product.

Transfer Mold — Transfer Mold is a process where the amount of molding material is measured and inserted before the molding takes place.

Extrusion — Extrusion is the process of forcing hot or cold, semi-soft material, usually metal or plastic, through the orifice of a die, to form a continuous, designed or engineered shape.

Plastic Film — Plastic film or Plastic wrap is a thin film typically used for sealing food items in containers to keep them fresh over a longer period of time.

Plastic Sheet — Plastic Sheet is a thin sheet of (usually plastic and usually transparent) material used to wrap or cover things.

Plastic Tubing — Plastic tubing is constructed of many different plastic compounds for flow lines for fluids and gases in pneumatic, hydraulic, process, medical and many other specialized applications.

Rubber Coating — Rubber coating is a process applied onto or impregnated into a substrate or an object for protective, decorative or functional purposes.

Rubber Gaskets — Rubber gaskets are used between two mating parts to reduce or eliminate fluid leakage or protect internal mechanical components from external elements.

Rubber Rings — Rubber Rings is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal or gasket. They are designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.

Rubber Shims — Rubber Shims are made up of rubber used in mechanical devices. It is used to prevent vibration from spreading from one part to another, reducing the noise levels.

Thermoforming — Thermoforming is a manufacturing process for thermoplastic sheet or film. The sheet or film is heated between infrared, natural gas, or other heaters to its forming temperature.

Vacuum Forming — Vacuum forming is a simplified version of thermoforming, whereby a sheet of plastic is heated to a forming temperature, stretched onto or into a single-surface mold and held against the mold by applying vacuum between the mold surface and the sheet.

Electromechanical — Electromechanical is related to a mechanical device or system that is actuated or controlled by electricity especially being a transducer for converting electrical energy to mechanical energy.

Mechanical Prototyping — Mechanical prototyping is important as a support to the aesthetical and functional values of a product. It involves complex mechanical assemblies like electrical sub- assemblies.

Plastic Prototype — Plastic Prototype is an prototype method which is often used in the design and development process for plastic parts.

Rapid Prototype — Rapid prototyping is the practice of manufacturing parts on a individual basis for a digital model. It is an automatic construction of physical objects using additive manufacturing technology.

Rubber Prototype — Rubber prototype is a working model of a design to illustrate form, fit and/or function.

Die Transfer — A die transfer system comprises a pair of elongated, horizontally extending vertically movable rails having a plurality of rollers thereon.

Die, Blanking — A blanking die produces a flat piece of material by cutting the desired shape in one operation.

Die Cutting — Die cutting is a manufacturing process used to generate large numbers of the same shape from a material such as wood, plastic, metal, or fabric.

Extrusion Die — Extrusion Die making is a process in which material often in billet form, is pushed or drawn through a die to create long objects of a fixed cross-section.

Jigs & Fixtures — A jig guides the tool to its correct position in addition to locating and supporting the workpiece. A fixture is to locate and in some cases hold a workpiece during either a machining operation or some other industrial process.

Pressing Die — Die pressing is the powder compaction method involving uniaxial pressure applied to the powder placed in a die between two rigid punches.

Shearing Die — Shearing Die is a die with a punch for shearing the work from the stock. Shearing is a process for cutting sheet metal to size out of a larger stock.

Tooling — Tooling is a working or manufacturing aids such as cutting tools, dies, fixtures, gauges, jigs, molds and patterns of a specialized nature which are limited in use to a specific production line or the performance of a specific contract or job.

Woodworking Return to Glossary

Custom Wood Parts — Custom wood and wood parts are materials derived from trees and include timber, lumber, veneer, wood pulp, wood flour, pellets and chips.

Machined Wood Parts — Machined Wood Parts are the parts manufactured out of wood. The processes in manufacturing machined wood parts includes routing, drilling, turning, joining, assembling and finishing.

Precision Woodworking — Precision woodworking is the process of manufacturing parts or products out of wood The precision woodworking processes include routing, drilling, turning, joining, assembling and finishing.

Wood Refinishing — Wood Refinishing refers to the act of repairing or reapplying the wood finishing on an object.

Air Compressors — Air compressor is a device that converts electrical power or gas into kinetic energy by pressurizing and compressing air, which is then released in quick bursts.

Bar Machinery — Bar machinery is designed for machining small threaded parts, bushings and other small parts that can be created from bar stock fed through the machine spindle.

Bending Machine — Bending Machine is also known as brake is a metalworking machine that allows the bending of sheet metal. Press brakes and bending machines are used to bend and fold metal by pressing it into a die.

Boring Mills — Boring mills or boring machines cut the inside of a bore to enlarge its diameter. Boring tools are used to cut or finish the inner diameter of holes.

Broaching Machine — Broaching machines are used in a metal-removal process, broaching, that is similar to planing. They have rows of cutting teeth along a cutting axis.

CNC Machines — Computer Numerical control (CNC) machines refers to the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium.

Coil Processing Machine — Coil Processing Machine are used for large quantity production of sheet metal. Coil Processing pertains to the unwinding and rewinding of coil, the slitting of coil into narrower strips and the flattening of coil into sheets.

Cutting Tools — Cutting tools use hardened bits or blades to cut metals. Cutting tools are used in milling, boring, drilling, reaming and threading processes.

Die Casting Machine — Die Casting Machine are used to inject the semi-solid slurry into re- usable hardened steel dies.

Drilling Machine — A drilling machine is a machine which creates holes and/or shafts in the ground. They are commonly used to drill or thread holes in a surface.

EDM Machine — Electrical Discharge Machines (EDM) are machines used for removing metal from a workpiece by using a series of electric sparks.

Forging Machine — Forging Machines are equipments that uses compressive force to shape metal parts. Forging process includes cold forging or heading, impression or closed die, open die and seamless rolled ring.

Forming Machine — The forming machines hold and move the parts that form the container. Generally powered by compressed air, the mechanisms are timed to coordinate the movement of all these parts so that containers are made.

Gear Machinery — Gear machineries are used to cut, form and finish gear teeth. They perform processes such as hobbing, milling, grinding, lapping and deburring.

Grinding Machine — Grinding machine also known as grinders is a machine tool used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool.

Hones — Hones and honing tools are abrasive products used to refine the finish of internal bores and external surfaces.

Lappers — Lappers are machines, in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them, by hand movement or by way of a machine. Lapping equipment are used to improve surface finish or geometry to tight tolerances.

Machine Tools — A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining, which is the selective removal of metal.

Machining Centers — Machining centers are machine tools that are used to automatically repeat operations on a workpiece. Operations in machining centers include drilling, reaming, tapping, milling and boring.

Milling Machines — Milling Machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. It can perform a vast number of operations such as slot and keyway cutting, planing, drilling, diesinking, rebating, routing, etc.

Packaging Machines — Packaging Machineries are used to package products or components, including equipment that forms, fills, seals, wraps, cleans and packages at different levels of automation.

Sawmills — Sawmills are equipments which is specially designed for the lumber industry and used in sawmills, timber and forestry applications. A sawmill is a facility where logs are cut into boards.

Wire Machinery — Wire Machineries produce square or rectangular flat wire as well as shaped wire with contoured cross-sections and complex profiles.